Individual surface nanobubbles are visualized with nonintrusive optical interference-enhanced reflection microscopy, demonstrating that their formation is not a consequence of the hitherto used intrusive atomic force microscopy technique. We then use this new and fast technique to demonstrate that surface nanobubbles form in less than a few seconds after ethanol-water exchange, which is the standard procedure for their preparation, and examine how they react to temperature variations.
Karpitschka, S., Dietrich, E., Seddon, J. R. T., Zandvliet, H. J. W., Lohse, D., & Riegler, H. (2012). Nonintrusive optical visualization of surface nanobubbles. Physical review letters, 109(6), . https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.109.066102