Nonresponse Bias and Stimulus Effects in the Dutch National Election Study

Robert J.J. Voogt, Hetty van Kempen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademic

29 Citations (Scopus)


Bias is a much-debated issue in survey research. Answer effects (respondents claim to have behaved differently than they did in reality), nonresponse bias (nonrespondents differ on important variables from the respondents) and stimulus effects (by participating in a previous wave of a study, respondents change their behavior or attitude) can seriously distort the results of survey research. By using data from the 1998 Dutch National Election Study the authors show that the results of election research can indeed be affected by bias. Not only are significant effects found in the distribution of political attitude and voting behavior variables as a result of both nonresponse bias and stimulus effects, it is also shown that relations between variables change as a result of bias.
Original languageUndefined
Pages (from-to)325-345
JournalQuality and quantity
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2002
Externally publishedYes


  • IR-60788

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