Thin films formed from small molecules are rapidly gaining importance in different technological fields. To explain their growth, methods developed for zero-dimensional atoms as the film-forming particles are applied. However, in organic thin-film growth the dimensionality of the building blocks comes into play. Using the special case of the model molecule para-Sexiphenyl, we will emphasize the challenges that arise from the anisotropic and one-dimensional nature of building blocks. Differences or common features with other rod-like molecules will be discussed. The typical morphologies encountered for this group of molecules and the relevant growth modes will be investigated. Special attention is given to the transition between a flat-lying and upright orientation of the building blocks during nucleation. We will further discuss methods to control the molecular orientation and describe the involved diffusion processes qualitatively and quantitatively.
Hlawacek, G., & Teichert, C. (2013). Nucleation and growth of thin films of rod-like conjugated molecules. Journal of physics: Condensed matter, 25(14), -. . https://doi.org/10.1088/0953-8984/25/14/143202