The finite element (FE) method is widely used to numerically simulate forming processes. The accuracy of an FE analysis strongly depends on the extent to which a material model can represent the real material behavior. The use of new materials requires complex material models which are able to describe complex material behavior like strain path sensitivity and phase transformations. Different yield loci and hardening laws are presented in this article, together with experimental results showing this complex behavior. Recommendations on how to further improve the constitutive models are given. In the area of damage and fracture behavior, a non-local damage model is presented, which provides a better prediction of sheet failure than the conventional Forming Limit Diagram.
|Journal||International journal of machine tools & manufacture|
|Publication status||Published - 2008|