Numerical modeling of natural convection in an open cavity with two vertical thin heat sources subjected to a nanofluid

Amir Houshang Mahmoudi, Mina Shahi*, Abed Moheb Shahedin, Neda Hemati

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

47 Citations (Scopus)


This paper presents a numerical study of natural convection cooling of two heat sources vertically attached to horizontal walls of a cavity. The right opening boundary is subjected to the copper-water nanofluid at constant low temperature and pressure, while the other boundaries are assumed to be adiabatic. The governing equations have been solved using the finite volume approach, using SIMPLE algorithm on the collocated arrangement. The study has been carried out for the Rayleigh number in the range 104≤Ra≤107, and for solid volume fraction 0≤φ≤0.05. In order to investigate the effect of heat source location, three different placement configurations of heat sources are considered. The effects of both Rayleigh numbers and heat source locations on the streamlines, isotherms, Nusselt number are investigated. The results indicate that the flow field and temperature distributions inside the cavity are strongly dependent on the Rayleigh numbers and the position of the heat sources. The results also indicate that the Nusselt number is an increasing function of the Rayleigh number, the distance between two heat sources, and distance from the wall. In addition it is observed that the average Nusselt number increases linearly with the increase in the solid volume fraction of nanoparticles.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)110-118
Number of pages9
JournalInternational Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2011
Externally publishedYes


  • Heat source
  • Nanofluid
  • Natural convection
  • Numerical study
  • Open cavity


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