Numerical study of natural convection cooling of horizontal heat source mounted in a square cavity filled with nanofluid

Amir Houshang Mahmoudi, Mina Shahi*, Abbas Honarbakhsh Raouf, Ali Ghasemian

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

83 Citations (Scopus)


This paper presents a numerical study of natural convection cooling of a heat source horizontally attached to the left vertical wall of a cavity filled with copper-water nanofluid. The left vertical wall is kept at the constant temperature, while the other ones are kept adiabatic. The numerical approach is based on the finite volume method with a collocated grid arrangement. The SIMPLE algorithm is used for handling the pressure velocity coupling. In this study, the influence of some effective parameters such as: Rayleigh number, location and geometry of heat source and solid concentration are studied and discussed. Results are presented in the form of streamlines, isotherms, and average Nusselt number. The results show that dimension of the heat source is an important parameter affecting the flow pattern and temperature field, so that the average Nusselt number decreases with an increase in the length of the heater. It is also observed that at a given Rayleigh number and definite heat source geometry, the average Nusselt number increases linearly with the increase in the solid volume fraction of nanofluid. The increase of Rayleigh numbers strengthens the natural convection flows which leads to the decrease in heat source temperature. The algorithm and the computer code have been also compared with numerical results in order to verify and validate the model.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1135-1141
Number of pages7
JournalInternational Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2010
Externally publishedYes


  • Nanofluid
  • Natural convection
  • Numerical study
  • Square cavity


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