The special structure of obliquely evaporated films has its origin in shadowing phenomena during film growth. Because of shadowing, the film consists of bundles of inclined columns with the bundles being aligned perpendicularly to the vapour incidence direction. The column inclination angle lies between the film normal and the vapour incidence direction. Different models found in literature relating process parameters and film structure are discussed. It is found that surface diffusion plays an important role, especially with regard to the difference between random and directional surface diffusion. The latter is induced by the oblique evaporation process. A quantitative expression is given for the relation between process conditions and surface diffusion including the influence of substrate temperature, rate and contamination with residual gasses. Using these models and adding our new calculations, the relation between surface diffusion and film structure is discussed in detail and found to be consistent with measurements published in the literature.
- Oblique evaporation
- Surface diffusion
- SMI-MAT: MATERIALS
- SMI-TST: From 2006 in EWI-TST