Observation and simulation of lake‐air heat and water transfer processes in a high‐altitude shallow lake on the Tibetan Plateau

Binbin Wang, Yaoming Ma, Xuelong Chen, Zhongbo Su, Massimo Menenti

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Abstract

Lakes are an important part of the landscape on the Tibetan Plateau. Most of the Plateau lakes' area has been expanding in recent years, but lake‐atmosphere energy and water interaction is poorly understood because of a lack of observational data and adequate modeling systems. Based on the eddy covariance observation over a high‐altitude shallow and small lake (the small Nam Co Lake) during an ice‐free period from 10 April to 30 August 2012, this study analyzes the lake‐air heat and water vapor turbulent transfer processes and evaluates two popular lake‐air exchange models: a bulk aerodynamic transfer model (B model) and a multilayer model (M model). Our main results are as follows: (1) observations show that the bulk transfer coefficient (CE) and roughness length (zoq) for water are higher than those for heat (CH and z0h), especially under low wind speed; (2) both models underestimate turbulent fluxes due to inaccurate values of the Charnock coefficient (α) and the roughness Reynolds number (Rr) which are both important parameters for calculating the roughness length for momentum (z0m) over water; (3) α within a reasonable range of 0.013–0.035 for rough flow and Rr for smooth flow (Rr = 0.11) are 0.031 and 0.54, respectively, by our observation. The wave pattern of shorter wavelength gives a larger z0m in the small and shallow lake; and (4) the B model and the M model gave consistent results, and both models are more suitable for simulation of turbulent flux exchange after z0m optimization.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)12327-12344
JournalJournal of geophysical research : Atmospheres
Volume120
Issue number24
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015

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plateau
roughness
lake
simulation
Reynolds number
water
eddy covariance
aerodynamics
momentum
water vapor
wind velocity
wavelength
modeling
energy

Keywords

  • METIS-316520
  • ITC-ISI-JOURNAL-ARTICLE
  • ITC-HYBRID

Cite this

@article{441ca074d8514495bf201bd9c8403894,
title = "Observation and simulation of lake‐air heat and water transfer processes in a high‐altitude shallow lake on the Tibetan Plateau",
abstract = "Lakes are an important part of the landscape on the Tibetan Plateau. Most of the Plateau lakes' area has been expanding in recent years, but lake‐atmosphere energy and water interaction is poorly understood because of a lack of observational data and adequate modeling systems. Based on the eddy covariance observation over a high‐altitude shallow and small lake (the small Nam Co Lake) during an ice‐free period from 10 April to 30 August 2012, this study analyzes the lake‐air heat and water vapor turbulent transfer processes and evaluates two popular lake‐air exchange models: a bulk aerodynamic transfer model (B model) and a multilayer model (M model). Our main results are as follows: (1) observations show that the bulk transfer coefficient (CE) and roughness length (zoq) for water are higher than those for heat (CH and z0h), especially under low wind speed; (2) both models underestimate turbulent fluxes due to inaccurate values of the Charnock coefficient (α) and the roughness Reynolds number (Rr) which are both important parameters for calculating the roughness length for momentum (z0m) over water; (3) α within a reasonable range of 0.013–0.035 for rough flow and Rr for smooth flow (Rr = 0.11) are 0.031 and 0.54, respectively, by our observation. The wave pattern of shorter wavelength gives a larger z0m in the small and shallow lake; and (4) the B model and the M model gave consistent results, and both models are more suitable for simulation of turbulent flux exchange after z0m optimization.",
keywords = "METIS-316520, ITC-ISI-JOURNAL-ARTICLE, ITC-HYBRID",
author = "Binbin Wang and Yaoming Ma and Xuelong Chen and Zhongbo Su and Massimo Menenti",
year = "2015",
doi = "10.1002/2015JD023863",
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volume = "120",
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journal = "Journal of geophysical research : Atmospheres",
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}

Observation and simulation of lake‐air heat and water transfer processes in a high‐altitude shallow lake on the Tibetan Plateau. / Wang, Binbin ; Ma, Yaoming; Chen, Xuelong ; Su, Zhongbo; Menenti, Massimo.

In: Journal of geophysical research : Atmospheres, Vol. 120, No. 24, 2015, p. 12327-12344.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Observation and simulation of lake‐air heat and water transfer processes in a high‐altitude shallow lake on the Tibetan Plateau

AU - Wang, Binbin

AU - Ma, Yaoming

AU - Chen, Xuelong

AU - Su, Zhongbo

AU - Menenti, Massimo

PY - 2015

Y1 - 2015

N2 - Lakes are an important part of the landscape on the Tibetan Plateau. Most of the Plateau lakes' area has been expanding in recent years, but lake‐atmosphere energy and water interaction is poorly understood because of a lack of observational data and adequate modeling systems. Based on the eddy covariance observation over a high‐altitude shallow and small lake (the small Nam Co Lake) during an ice‐free period from 10 April to 30 August 2012, this study analyzes the lake‐air heat and water vapor turbulent transfer processes and evaluates two popular lake‐air exchange models: a bulk aerodynamic transfer model (B model) and a multilayer model (M model). Our main results are as follows: (1) observations show that the bulk transfer coefficient (CE) and roughness length (zoq) for water are higher than those for heat (CH and z0h), especially under low wind speed; (2) both models underestimate turbulent fluxes due to inaccurate values of the Charnock coefficient (α) and the roughness Reynolds number (Rr) which are both important parameters for calculating the roughness length for momentum (z0m) over water; (3) α within a reasonable range of 0.013–0.035 for rough flow and Rr for smooth flow (Rr = 0.11) are 0.031 and 0.54, respectively, by our observation. The wave pattern of shorter wavelength gives a larger z0m in the small and shallow lake; and (4) the B model and the M model gave consistent results, and both models are more suitable for simulation of turbulent flux exchange after z0m optimization.

AB - Lakes are an important part of the landscape on the Tibetan Plateau. Most of the Plateau lakes' area has been expanding in recent years, but lake‐atmosphere energy and water interaction is poorly understood because of a lack of observational data and adequate modeling systems. Based on the eddy covariance observation over a high‐altitude shallow and small lake (the small Nam Co Lake) during an ice‐free period from 10 April to 30 August 2012, this study analyzes the lake‐air heat and water vapor turbulent transfer processes and evaluates two popular lake‐air exchange models: a bulk aerodynamic transfer model (B model) and a multilayer model (M model). Our main results are as follows: (1) observations show that the bulk transfer coefficient (CE) and roughness length (zoq) for water are higher than those for heat (CH and z0h), especially under low wind speed; (2) both models underestimate turbulent fluxes due to inaccurate values of the Charnock coefficient (α) and the roughness Reynolds number (Rr) which are both important parameters for calculating the roughness length for momentum (z0m) over water; (3) α within a reasonable range of 0.013–0.035 for rough flow and Rr for smooth flow (Rr = 0.11) are 0.031 and 0.54, respectively, by our observation. The wave pattern of shorter wavelength gives a larger z0m in the small and shallow lake; and (4) the B model and the M model gave consistent results, and both models are more suitable for simulation of turbulent flux exchange after z0m optimization.

KW - METIS-316520

KW - ITC-ISI-JOURNAL-ARTICLE

KW - ITC-HYBRID

UR - https://ezproxy2.utwente.nl/login?url=https://webapps.itc.utwente.nl/library/2015/isi/chen_obs.pdf

U2 - 10.1002/2015JD023863

DO - 10.1002/2015JD023863

M3 - Article

VL - 120

SP - 12327

EP - 12344

JO - Journal of geophysical research : Atmospheres

JF - Journal of geophysical research : Atmospheres

SN - 2169-897X

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ER -