On-chip electrocatalytic NO sensing using ruthenium oxide nanorods

E. Tanumihardja*, A. Paradelo Rodríguez, J.T. Loessberg-Zahl, B. Mei, W. Olthuis, A. van den Berg

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)
211 Downloads (Pure)


Online, on-chip measurement of nitric oxide (NO) in organ-on-chip devices is desired to study endothelial (dys)function under dynamic conditions. In this work, ruthenium oxide (RuOx) is explored as an amperometric NO sensor and its suitability for organ-on-chip applications. For testing purposes, diethylamine NONOate was used as chemical NO donor. The NONOate's NO generation and electrochemical oxidation of generated NO were confirmed by real-time electrochemical/mass-spectrometry. Using RuOx nanorods electrodes, we show that NO oxidation occurred at a lower onset potential (+675 mV vs. Ag/AgCl) than on bare Pt electrode (+800 mV vs. Ag/AgCl). Due to NO adsorption on the RuOx surface, NO oxidation also delivered a higher current density (33.5 nA.μM−1. cm-2) compared to bare Pt (19.6 nA.μM−1. cm-2), making RuOx nanorods a favourable electrode for NO sensing applications. The RuOx electrode's suitability for organ-on-chip applications was successfully tested by using the electrode to detect a few micromolar concentration of NO generated by endothelial cell culture. Overall, the RuOx nanorods proved to be suitable for organ-on-chip studies due to their high sensitivity and selectivity. Our chip-integrated electrode allows for online NO monitoring in biologically relevant in vitro experiments.

Original languageEnglish
Article number129631
JournalSensors and Actuators, B: Chemical
Early online date9 Feb 2021
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2021


  • UT-Hybrid-D
  • Electrocatalytic
  • Endothelial cells
  • Nitric oxide
  • Real-time mass-spectrometry
  • Ruthenium oxide
  • Amperometric sensing


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