For the first time, on-chip planar hydrodynamic chromatography is combined with UV absorption detection. This technique is suitable for size characterization of synthetic polymers, biopolymers, and particles. Possible advantages of an on-chip hydrodynamic chromatography system over conventional techniques, such as size exclusion chromatography, and field-flow fractionation are fast analysis, high efficiency, reduced solvent consumption, and easy temperature control. The hydrodynamic separations are performed in a planar configuration realized in fused silica using a mixture of fluorescent and nonfluorescent polystyrene particles with sizes ranging from 26 to 155 nm. The planar chip configuration consists of a 1-μm-high, 0.5-mm-wide, and 69-mm-long channel, an integrated 150-pL injection structure, and a 30-μm-deep and 30-μm-wide detection cell, suitable for UV absorption detection. By combination of the separation data obtained in the new fused-silica chip with those obtained using a previously presented planar hydrodynamic chromatography chip, which was realized using silicon and glass microtechnology, a description of the retention and dispersion behavior of planar hydrodynamic chromatography is obtained. Especially the influence of the sidewalls on the dispersion is investigated. Furthermore a hydrodynamic separation within 70 s of several biopolymers is shown in the glass−silicon chip.