On-Road and Online Studies to Investigate Beliefs and Behaviors of Netherlands, US and Mexico Pedestrians Encountering Hidden-Driver Vehicles

Jamy Jue Li, Rebecca Currano, David Sirkin, David Goedicke, Hamish Tennant, Aaron Levine, Vanessa Evers, Wendy Ju

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper

Abstract

A growing number of studies use a ``ghost-driver'' vehicle driven by a person in a car seat costume to simulate an autonomous vehicle. Using a hidden-driver vehicle in a field study in the Netherlands, Study 1 (N = 130) confirmed that the ghostdriver methodology is valid in Europe and confirmed that European pedestrians change their behavior when encountering a hidden-driver vehicle. As an important extension to past research, we find pedestrian group size is associated with their behavior: groups look longer than singletons when encountering an autonomous vehicle, but look for less time than singletons when encountering a normal vehicle. Study 2 (N = 101) adapted and extended the hidden-driver method to test whether it is believable as online video stimuli and whether car characteristics and participant feelings are related to the beliefs and behavior of pedestrians who see hidden-driver vehicles. As expected, belief rates were lower for hidden-driver vehicles seen in videos compared to in a field study. Importantly, we found noticing no driver was the only significant predictor of belief in car autonomy, which reinforces prior justification for the use of the ghostdriver method. Our contributions are a replication of the hidden-driver method in Europe and comparisons with past US and Mexico data; an extension and evaluation of the ghostdriver method in video form; evidence of the necessity of the hidden driver in creating the illusion of vehicle autonomy; and an extended analysis of how pedestrian group size and feelings relate to pedestrian behavior when encountering a hidden-driver vehicle.
Original languageEnglish
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2020
Event15th Annual ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction, HRI 2020 - Cambridge, United Kingdom
Duration: 23 Mar 202026 Mar 2020
Conference number: 15
http://humanrobotinteraction.org/2020/

Conference

Conference15th Annual ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction, HRI 2020
Abbreviated titleHRI 2020
CountryUnited Kingdom
CityCambridge
Period23/03/2026/03/20
Internet address

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Li, J. J., Currano, R., Sirkin, D., Goedicke, D., Tennant, H., Levine, A., ... Ju, W. (Accepted/In press). On-Road and Online Studies to Investigate Beliefs and Behaviors of Netherlands, US and Mexico Pedestrians Encountering Hidden-Driver Vehicles. Paper presented at 15th Annual ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction, HRI 2020, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
Li, Jamy Jue ; Currano, Rebecca ; Sirkin, David ; Goedicke, David ; Tennant, Hamish ; Levine, Aaron ; Evers, Vanessa ; Ju, Wendy. / On-Road and Online Studies to Investigate Beliefs and Behaviors of Netherlands, US and Mexico Pedestrians Encountering Hidden-Driver Vehicles. Paper presented at 15th Annual ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction, HRI 2020, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
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abstract = "A growing number of studies use a ``ghost-driver'' vehicle driven by a person in a car seat costume to simulate an autonomous vehicle. Using a hidden-driver vehicle in a field study in the Netherlands, Study 1 (N = 130) confirmed that the ghostdriver methodology is valid in Europe and confirmed that European pedestrians change their behavior when encountering a hidden-driver vehicle. As an important extension to past research, we find pedestrian group size is associated with their behavior: groups look longer than singletons when encountering an autonomous vehicle, but look for less time than singletons when encountering a normal vehicle. Study 2 (N = 101) adapted and extended the hidden-driver method to test whether it is believable as online video stimuli and whether car characteristics and participant feelings are related to the beliefs and behavior of pedestrians who see hidden-driver vehicles. As expected, belief rates were lower for hidden-driver vehicles seen in videos compared to in a field study. Importantly, we found noticing no driver was the only significant predictor of belief in car autonomy, which reinforces prior justification for the use of the ghostdriver method. Our contributions are a replication of the hidden-driver method in Europe and comparisons with past US and Mexico data; an extension and evaluation of the ghostdriver method in video form; evidence of the necessity of the hidden driver in creating the illusion of vehicle autonomy; and an extended analysis of how pedestrian group size and feelings relate to pedestrian behavior when encountering a hidden-driver vehicle.",
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Li, JJ, Currano, R, Sirkin, D, Goedicke, D, Tennant, H, Levine, A, Evers, V & Ju, W 2020, 'On-Road and Online Studies to Investigate Beliefs and Behaviors of Netherlands, US and Mexico Pedestrians Encountering Hidden-Driver Vehicles' Paper presented at 15th Annual ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction, HRI 2020, Cambridge, United Kingdom, 23/03/20 - 26/03/20, .

On-Road and Online Studies to Investigate Beliefs and Behaviors of Netherlands, US and Mexico Pedestrians Encountering Hidden-Driver Vehicles. / Li, Jamy Jue; Currano, Rebecca; Sirkin, David; Goedicke, David; Tennant, Hamish; Levine, Aaron; Evers, Vanessa ; Ju, Wendy.

2020. Paper presented at 15th Annual ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction, HRI 2020, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper

TY - CONF

T1 - On-Road and Online Studies to Investigate Beliefs and Behaviors of Netherlands, US and Mexico Pedestrians Encountering Hidden-Driver Vehicles

AU - Li, Jamy Jue

AU - Currano, Rebecca

AU - Sirkin, David

AU - Goedicke, David

AU - Tennant, Hamish

AU - Levine, Aaron

AU - Evers, Vanessa

AU - Ju, Wendy

PY - 2020

Y1 - 2020

N2 - A growing number of studies use a ``ghost-driver'' vehicle driven by a person in a car seat costume to simulate an autonomous vehicle. Using a hidden-driver vehicle in a field study in the Netherlands, Study 1 (N = 130) confirmed that the ghostdriver methodology is valid in Europe and confirmed that European pedestrians change their behavior when encountering a hidden-driver vehicle. As an important extension to past research, we find pedestrian group size is associated with their behavior: groups look longer than singletons when encountering an autonomous vehicle, but look for less time than singletons when encountering a normal vehicle. Study 2 (N = 101) adapted and extended the hidden-driver method to test whether it is believable as online video stimuli and whether car characteristics and participant feelings are related to the beliefs and behavior of pedestrians who see hidden-driver vehicles. As expected, belief rates were lower for hidden-driver vehicles seen in videos compared to in a field study. Importantly, we found noticing no driver was the only significant predictor of belief in car autonomy, which reinforces prior justification for the use of the ghostdriver method. Our contributions are a replication of the hidden-driver method in Europe and comparisons with past US and Mexico data; an extension and evaluation of the ghostdriver method in video form; evidence of the necessity of the hidden driver in creating the illusion of vehicle autonomy; and an extended analysis of how pedestrian group size and feelings relate to pedestrian behavior when encountering a hidden-driver vehicle.

AB - A growing number of studies use a ``ghost-driver'' vehicle driven by a person in a car seat costume to simulate an autonomous vehicle. Using a hidden-driver vehicle in a field study in the Netherlands, Study 1 (N = 130) confirmed that the ghostdriver methodology is valid in Europe and confirmed that European pedestrians change their behavior when encountering a hidden-driver vehicle. As an important extension to past research, we find pedestrian group size is associated with their behavior: groups look longer than singletons when encountering an autonomous vehicle, but look for less time than singletons when encountering a normal vehicle. Study 2 (N = 101) adapted and extended the hidden-driver method to test whether it is believable as online video stimuli and whether car characteristics and participant feelings are related to the beliefs and behavior of pedestrians who see hidden-driver vehicles. As expected, belief rates were lower for hidden-driver vehicles seen in videos compared to in a field study. Importantly, we found noticing no driver was the only significant predictor of belief in car autonomy, which reinforces prior justification for the use of the ghostdriver method. Our contributions are a replication of the hidden-driver method in Europe and comparisons with past US and Mexico data; an extension and evaluation of the ghostdriver method in video form; evidence of the necessity of the hidden driver in creating the illusion of vehicle autonomy; and an extended analysis of how pedestrian group size and feelings relate to pedestrian behavior when encountering a hidden-driver vehicle.

M3 - Paper

ER -

Li JJ, Currano R, Sirkin D, Goedicke D, Tennant H, Levine A et al. On-Road and Online Studies to Investigate Beliefs and Behaviors of Netherlands, US and Mexico Pedestrians Encountering Hidden-Driver Vehicles. 2020. Paper presented at 15th Annual ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction, HRI 2020, Cambridge, United Kingdom.