A growing number of studies use a ``ghost-driver'' vehicle driven by a person in a car seat costume to simulate an autonomous vehicle. Using a hidden-driver vehicle in a field study in the Netherlands, Study 1 (N = 130) confirmed that the ghostdriver methodology is valid in Europe and confirmed that European pedestrians change their behavior when encountering a hidden-driver vehicle. As an important extension to past research, we find pedestrian group size is associated with their behavior: groups look longer than singletons when encountering an autonomous vehicle, but look for less time than singletons when encountering a normal vehicle. Study 2 (N = 101) adapted and extended the hidden-driver method to test whether it is believable as online video stimuli and whether car characteristics and participant feelings are related to the beliefs and behavior of pedestrians who see hidden-driver vehicles. As expected, belief rates were lower for hidden-driver vehicles seen in videos compared to in a field study. Importantly, we found noticing no driver was the only significant predictor of belief in car autonomy, which reinforces prior justification for the use of the ghostdriver method. Our contributions are a replication of the hidden-driver method in Europe and comparisons with past US and Mexico data; an extension and evaluation of the ghostdriver method in video form; evidence of the necessity of the hidden driver in creating the illusion of vehicle autonomy; and an extended analysis of how pedestrian group size and feelings relate to pedestrian behavior when encountering a hidden-driver vehicle.
|Title of host publication||HRI '20: Proceedings of the 2020 ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction|
|Publisher||Association for Computing Machinery (ACM)|
|Publication status||Published - 1 Mar 2020|
|Event||15th Annual ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction, HRI 2020 (Canceled) - Cambridge, United Kingdom|
Duration: 23 Mar 2020 → 26 Mar 2020
Conference number: 15
|Conference||15th Annual ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction, HRI 2020 (Canceled)|
|Abbreviated title||HRI 2020|
|Period||23/03/20 → 26/03/20|
Li, J. J., Currano, R., Sirkin, D., Goedicke, D., Tennent, H., Levine, A., ... Ju, W. (2020). On-Road and Online Studies to Investigate Beliefs and Behaviors of Netherlands, US and Mexico Pedestrians Encountering Hidden-Driver Vehicles. In HRI '20: Proceedings of the 2020 ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction (pp. 141-149). Association for Computing Machinery (ACM).