Our bodies have the amazing ability to self-trigger tissue regeneration when required to repair or renew tissues. Adult stem cells emerge from their niche and are instructed by local environmental factors to differentiate into the needed specific phenotypes once they have migrated to the target sites. For example, the complex weaving of collagen filaments composing the tissue framework not only offers nanoscaled topographical cues to cells but also its stiffness may influence their differentiation. Specific biomolecules, secreted by glands or other cells and transported by body fluids, also provide instructive indications to cells. In this sense, combinations of various physical and chemical stimuli at the micro- and nanoscale are crucial in regenerating tissues.
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