On the Low Complexity Implementation of the DFT-Based BFSK Demodulator for Ultra-Narrowband Communications

Siavash Safapourhajari*, Andre B.J. Kokkeler

*Corresponding author for this work

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The DFT-based demodulator for BFSK has been introduced for applications where the received signal experiences a carrier frequency offset (CFO) much larger than the symbol rate. The Ultra-Narrowband (UNB) communication techniques have been introduced for implementing the emerging Low Power Wide Area Networks (LPWAN). Since UNB communication is prone to CFO, a DFT-based BFSK demodulator is an interesting option for this type of communication. However, for proper operation in a large frequency offset, the DFT-based demodulator requires a complex window synchronization which is not desirable for low power nodes. The main source of complexity, is calculating the DFT of a window which slides over the preamble. In this work, the complexity is alleviated by considering the window synchronization algorithm and its implementation together. First, a new window synchronization algorithm is proposed which is designed such that an efficient class of implementations of the sliding DFT (SDFT), called Single Bin SDFT (SB-SDFT) in this work, can be used. Moreover, a new stable implementation of SB-SDFT is designed to enable zero-padding which is required by the demodulator. The complexity of the proposed algorithm implemented using the SB-SDFT, scales more efficiently compared to the conventional algorithm when the range of tolerable CFO increases. Using the proposed method, for a CFO tolerance in the order of 14.5 times the symbol rate (±14.5 kHz for a symbol rate equal to 100 Hz), the number of complex operations is reduced by more than 85% (and memory by 90%) compared to the conventional method.
Original languageEnglish
Article number9154670
Pages (from-to)146666-146682
Number of pages17
JournalIEEE Access
Publication statusPublished - 3 Aug 2020


  • Frequency Shift Keying (FSK)
  • Frequency Offset
  • Sliding DFT
  • Ultra-Narrowband (UNB)
  • Offset Tolerant Demodulator


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