On the potential of IPv6 open resolvers for DDoS attacks

Abstract

Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks have become a daily problem in today’s Internet. These attacks aim at overwhelm- ing online services or network infrastrucure. Some DDoS attacks explore open services to perform reflected and amplified attacks; and the DNS is one of the most (mis)used systems by attackers. This problem can be further aggravated in the near future by the increasing number of IPv6-enabled services in the Internet. Given that the deployment of IPv6-enabled services is increasing, it becomes impor- tant to find vulnerable IPv6 open services that could be (mis)used by attackers, and prevent that misuse. However, unlike with IPv4, simply scanning the IPv6 address space to find these open services is impractical. In this paper we present an active measurement approach to enumer- ate a relevant list of open resolvers on IPv6 in the wild that could be potentially exploited in a DDoS attack. Based on the assumption that IPv6 open resolvers can be found via IPv4 ones, we show that IPv6-based amplified DDoS attacks are a significantly potential threat in the Inter- net: the analyzed resolvers, of which 72% are assumingly infrastructural servers, showed a median amplification factor of 50. 1
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationPassive and Active Measurement
Subtitle of host publication18th International Conference, PAM 2017, Sydney, NSW, Australia, March 30-31, 2017, Proceedings
EditorsMohamed Ali Kaafar, Steve Uhlig, Johanna Amann
Place of PublicationCham
PublisherSpringer
Pages17-29
Number of pages13
ISBN (Electronic)978-3-319-54328-4
ISBN (Print)978-3-319-54327-7
DOIs
StatePublished - 2017
Event18th International Conference Passive and Active Measurement, PAM 2017 - Sydney, Australia

Publication series

NameLecture Notes in Computer Science
PublisherSpringer
Volume10176
ISSN (Print)0302-9743
ISSN (Electronic)1611-3349
NameLecture Notes in Computer Communication Networks and Telecommunications
PublisherSpringer

Conference

Conference18th International Conference Passive and Active Measurement, PAM 2017
Abbreviated titlePAM
CountryAustralia
CitySydney
Period30/03/1730/03/17

Fingerprint

Internet
Amplification
Servers
Denial-of-service attack
Scanning

Keywords

  • Open Resolver
  • Domain Name System
  • IPv6 Address
  • Response Size
  • Shared Cache

Cite this

Hendriks, L., de Oliveira Schmidt, R., van Rijswijk-Deij, R., & Pras, A. (2017). On the potential of IPv6 open resolvers for DDoS attacks. In M. A. Kaafar, S. Uhlig, & J. Amann (Eds.), Passive and Active Measurement: 18th International Conference, PAM 2017, Sydney, NSW, Australia, March 30-31, 2017, Proceedings (pp. 17-29). (Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Vol. 10176), (Lecture Notes in Computer Communication Networks and Telecommunications). Cham: Springer. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-54328-4_2

Hendriks, Luuk ; de Oliveira Schmidt, Ricardo ; van Rijswijk-Deij, Roland; Pras, Aiko / On the potential of IPv6 open resolvers for DDoS attacks.

Passive and Active Measurement: 18th International Conference, PAM 2017, Sydney, NSW, Australia, March 30-31, 2017, Proceedings. ed. / Mohamed Ali Kaafar; Steve Uhlig; Johanna Amann. Cham : Springer, 2017. p. 17-29 (Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Vol. 10176), (Lecture Notes in Computer Communication Networks and Telecommunications).

Research output: Scientific - peer-reviewConference contribution

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Hendriks, L, de Oliveira Schmidt, R, van Rijswijk-Deij, R & Pras, A 2017, On the potential of IPv6 open resolvers for DDoS attacks. in MA Kaafar, S Uhlig & J Amann (eds), Passive and Active Measurement: 18th International Conference, PAM 2017, Sydney, NSW, Australia, March 30-31, 2017, Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 10176, Lecture Notes in Computer Communication Networks and Telecommunications, Springer, Cham, pp. 17-29, 18th International Conference Passive and Active Measurement, PAM 2017, Sydney, Australia, 30-30 March. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-54328-4_2

On the potential of IPv6 open resolvers for DDoS attacks. / Hendriks, Luuk ; de Oliveira Schmidt, Ricardo ; van Rijswijk-Deij, Roland; Pras, Aiko .

Passive and Active Measurement: 18th International Conference, PAM 2017, Sydney, NSW, Australia, March 30-31, 2017, Proceedings. ed. / Mohamed Ali Kaafar; Steve Uhlig; Johanna Amann. Cham : Springer, 2017. p. 17-29 (Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Vol. 10176), (Lecture Notes in Computer Communication Networks and Telecommunications).

Research output: Scientific - peer-reviewConference contribution

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Hendriks L, de Oliveira Schmidt R, van Rijswijk-Deij R, Pras A. On the potential of IPv6 open resolvers for DDoS attacks. In Kaafar MA, Uhlig S, Amann J, editors, Passive and Active Measurement: 18th International Conference, PAM 2017, Sydney, NSW, Australia, March 30-31, 2017, Proceedings. Cham: Springer. 2017. p. 17-29. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science). (Lecture Notes in Computer Communication Networks and Telecommunications). Available from, DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-54328-4_2