When human listeners utter Listener Responses (e.g. back-channels or acknowledgments) such as 'yeah' and 'mmhmm', interlocutors commonly continue to speak or resume their speech even before the listener has nished his/her response. This type of speech interactivity results in frequent speech overlap which is common in human-human conversation. To allow for this type of speech interactivity to occur between humans and spoken dialog systems, which will result in more human-like continuous and smoother human-machine interaction, we propose an on-line classier which can classify incoming speech as Listener Responses. We show that it is possible to detect vocal Listener Responses using maximum latency thresholds of 100-500 ms, thereby obtaining equal error rates ranging from 34% to 28% by using an energy based voice activity detector.
|Publisher||IEEE Signal Processing Society|
|Conference||IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing, ICASSP 2011|
|Period||22/05/11 → 27/05/11|
- EC Grant Agreement nr.: FP7/231287