Due to the increasing penetration of electric vehicles (EVs) in the distribution grid, coordinated control of their charging is required to maintain a proper grid operation. Many EV charging strategies assume that the EV can charge at any rate up to a maximum value. Furthermore, many strategies use detailed predictions of uncertain data such as uncontrollable loads as input. However, in practice, charging can often be done only at a few discrete charging rates and obtaining detailed predictions of the uncertain data is difficult. Therefore, this paper presents an online EV scheduling approach based on discrete charging rates that does not require detailed predictions of this uncertain data. Instead, the approach requires only a prediction of a single value that characterizes an optimal offline EV schedule. Simulation results show that this approach is robust against prediction errors in this characterizing value and that this value can be easily predicted. Moreover, the results indicate that incorporating practical limitations such as discrete charging rates and uncertainty in uncontrollable loads can be done in an efficient and effective way.
- Electric vehicle
- Discrete charging rate
- Energy management
- Optimization under uncertainty