Operando X-ray characterization of interfacial charge transfer and structural rearrangements

Reshma R. Rao, Iris C.G. van den Bosch, Christoph Baeumer*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterAcademicpeer-review

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Key technologies in energy conversion and storage, sensing and chemical synthesis rely on a detailed knowledge about charge transfer processes at electrified solid-liquid interfaces. However, these interfaces continuously evolve as a function of applied potentials, ionic concentrations and time. We therefore need to characterize chemical composition, atomic arrangement and electronic structure of both the liquid and the solid side of the interface under operating conditions. In this chapter, we discuss the state-of-the-art X-ray based spectroscopy and diffraction approaches for such “operando” characterization. We highlight recent examples from literature and demonstrate how X-ray absorption spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and surface X-ray diffraction can reveal the required interface-sensitive information.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationEncyclopedia of Solid-Liquid Interfaces
EditorsKlaus Wandelt, Gianlorenzo Bussetti
ISBN (Electronic)9780323856690
Publication statusPublished - 30 Aug 2023


  • Operando
  • X-ray absorption spectroscopy
  • Photoelectron spectroscopy
  • Surface X-ray diffraction
  • Crystal truncation rod
  • Standing wave XPS
  • Electrocatalysis
  • Electrochemistry
  • Termination layers
  • Active sites
  • Oxygen evolution reaction (OER)


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