Operational Performance and Degradation of PV Systems Consisting of Six Technologies in Three Climates

Kunaifi, Angèle Reinders, Sascha Lindig, Magnus Jaeger, David Moser

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13 Citations (Scopus)
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In Indonesia, the solar photovoltaic (PV) market is rapidly growing. However, studies on the outdoor performance of PV systems in this tropical rainforest country is lacking. In this work, we compare the performance of PV systems in Indonesia with PV systems in Australia (arid, desert, hot) and Italy (temperate, dry summer, hot summer). Monitoring data from 2008 to 2019, ranging from two to nine years, from fifteen PV systems of six technologies were analyzed. The performance of the PV systems was presented using their performance ratio (PR) and performance loss rate (PLR). PR was calculated using IEC standard 61724, and PLR was calculated using seasonal and trend decomposition, applying locally weighted scatterplot smoothing (STL decomposition) and the year-on-year approach from NREL/RdTools. The results showed that the CIGS (copper indium gallium selenide) system had the highest average PR value of 0.88 ± 0.04. The lowest average PR was found in the a-Si (amorphous silicon) PV systems (0.78 ± 0.05). The p-Si (polycrystalline silicon) systems in the Cfb (temperate, no dry season, warm summer) climate of Italy had a higher average PR of 0.84 than those operated in climates BWh (arid, desert, hot) of Australia and Af (tropical, rainforest) of Indonesia, with the same value of 0.81. The p-Si systems showed the lowest PLR, with a value of −0.6%/year. The fastest degradation was experienced by a-Si modules at −1.58%/year. The methodological differences in the calculation of PLR using both tested approaches resulted in a significant difference in the degradation value, which demands standardization of the term and calculation methodology.
Original languageEnglish
Article number5412
Number of pages20
JournalApplied Sciences
Issue number16
Publication statusPublished - 5 Aug 2020


  • degradation
  • Indonesia
  • performance loss rate
  • performance ratio
  • solar photovoltaic
  • STL decomposition
  • year-on-year


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