Optimising magnetic sentinel lymph node biopsy in an in vivo porcine model

Muneer Ahmed, Bauke Anninga, Joost J. Pouw, Suzan Vreemann, Mirjam Peek, Mieke van Hemelrijck, Sarah Pinder, Bennie ten Haken, Quentin Pankhurst, Michael Douek*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


The magnetic technique for sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has been evaluated in several clinical trials. An in vivo porcine model was developed to optimise the magnetic technique by evaluating the effect of differing volume, concentration and time of injection of magnetic tracer. A total of 60 sentinel node procedures were undertaken. There was a significant correlation between magnetometer counts and iron content of excised sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) (r = 0.82; P < 0.001). Total number of SLNs increased with increasing volumes of magnetic tracer (P < 0.001). Transcutaneous magnetometer counts increased with increasing time from injection of magnetic tracer (P < 0.0001), plateauing within 60 min. Increasing concentration resulted in higher iron content of SLNs (P = 0.006). Increasing magnetic tracer volume and injecting prior to surgery improve transcutaneous ‘hotspot’ identification but very high volumes, increase the number of nodes excised
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)993-1002
Number of pages10
JournalNanomedicine : nanotechnology, biology and medicine
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2015


  • Magnetic tracer
  • Sentinel lymph node biopsy
  • SLNB: magnetic technique
  • SPIO
  • Superparamagnetic iron oxide
  • 2023 OA procedure


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