High-resolution X-ray diffraction (HR-XRD) was investigated as a possible technique for the qualitative analysis of damage annealing of low-dose, high-energy implanted (001) silicon, implanted with dopants smaller than the host atom. The choice of proper Bragg reflection for the rocking-curve measurements is shown to be of crucial importance. The graphic construction of the Ewald sphere is a useful aid for this purpose. As the in-plane lattice constant is confined by the underlying substrate, a change occurs in the perpendicular direction only. Therefore the (026)1 reflection appears to be the most suitable for the detection of changes in lattice constant caused by implantation damage. Qualitative analysis of rocking curves of P- and B-implanted Si samples was compared with electrical measurements and cross-section transmission electron micrographs. It could be established that the minimum implantation doses of P and B at energies ranging from 0.5 to 1.5 MeV, for which HR-XRD is sensitive enough, are about 1.5 × 1014 cm¿2 and 5 × 1013 cm¿2respectively. The minimum peak temperature needed for complete damage anneal by transient-rapid thermal annealing was about 1400 K for all doses considered.
Klappe, J. G. E., Bársony, I., Liefting, J. R., & Ryan, T. W. (1993). Optimization of ion implantation damage annealing by means of high-resolution X-ray diffraction. Thin solid films, 235(1-2), 189-197. https://doi.org/10.1016/0040-6090(93)90264-P