Optimized triton X-114 assisted lipopolysaccharide (LPS) removal method reveals the immunomodulatory effect of food proteins

Malgorzata Teodorowicz, Olaf Perdijk, Iris Verhoek, Coen Govers, Huub F.J. Savelkoul, Yongfu Tang, Harry Wichers, Kerensa Broersen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

25 Citations (Scopus)
61 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

Scope Investigations into the immunological response of proteins is often masked by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) contamination. We report an optimized Triton X-114 (TX-114) based LPS extraction method for β-lactoglobulin (BLG) and soy protein extract suitable for cell-based immunological assays. Methods and results Optimization of an existing TX-114 based phase LPS extraction method resulted in >99% reduction of LPS levels. However, remaining TX-114 was found to interfere with LPS and protein concentration assays and decreased viability of THP-1 macrophages and HEK-Blue 293 cells. Upon screening a range of TX-114 extraction procedures, TX-114-binding beads were found to most effectively lower TX-114 levels without affecting protein structural properties. LPS-purified proteins showed reduced capacity to activate TLR4 compared to nontreated proteins. LPS-purified BLG did not induce secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines from THP-1 macrophages, as non-treated protein did, showing that LPS contamination masks the immunomodulatory effect of BLG. Both HEK293 cells expressing TLR4 and differentiated THP-1 macrophages were shown as a relevant model to screen the protein preparations for biological effects of LPS contamination. Conclusion The reported TX-114 assisted LPS-removal from protein preparations followed by bead based removal of TX-114 allows evaluation of natively folded protein preparations for their immunological potential in cell-based studies.

Original languageEnglish
Article number0173778
JournalPLoS ONE
Volume12
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 29 Mar 2017

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Optimized triton X-114 assisted lipopolysaccharide (LPS) removal method reveals the immunomodulatory effect of food proteins'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

  • Cite this