Order-of-magnitude power enhancement of an Er3+ 2.7-µm ZBLAN laser utilizing lifetime quenching by energy transfer to Pr3+

S.D. Jackson, T.A. King, Markus Pollnau

    Abstract

    In recent years, there have been enormous research efforts to improve the performance of lasers emitting around 3 µm mainly because of their potential applications in medicine. The erbium-doped ZBLAN fiber is a promising candidate for the construction of a compact and efficient all-solid-state laser emitting on the transition at 2.7 µm. However, a high excitation density with the consequences of pump excited-state absorption (ESA) can lead to output-power saturation in the fiber laser. This saturation was overcome in a cascade lasing regime and 150 mW of output power was achieved under Ti:sapphire pumping at 791 nm. Here, we investigate experimentally a theoretical proposal to scale the output power of the Er3+ 2.7-µm fiber laser to the 1-W region: Ground-state bleaching, large excitation of the Er3+ 4I11/2 and 4I13/2 laser levels, and consequent ESA losses are avoided by an active reduction of the excitation density due to a Förster-Dexter-type energy transfer from the Er3+ 4I13/2 lower laser level to the 3F3 level of a Pr3+ codopant and subsequent fast multiphonon relaxation of the Pr3+ ion. With concentrations of 35000 ppm mol. Er3+ and 3000 ppm mol. Pr3+, the Er3+ 4I13/2 lifetime in ZBLAN is quenched from 8.7 ms to less than 300 µs. Utilizing this approach, we demonstrate 1.7 W of output power in a near transverse-fundamental mode and 17% slope efficiency at 2.71 µm from an erbium ZBLAN fiber pumped at 790 nm by 22 W from a diode source. This result represents more than an order-of-magnitude improvement in output power over previous work. The double-clad fiber consisted of a circular core of 15 µm diameter and a rectangular inner cladding of 100×200 µm2. Since also ESA from the 4I11/2 upper laser level is avoided due to the threshold condition for the laser levels, further power scaling seems possible by pumping at 980 nm directly into 4I11/2.
    Original languageUndefined
    PagesPostdeadline paper B04_1
    Number of pages1
    StatePublished - Aug 1999

    Fingerprint

    excitation
    output
    fibers
    erbium
    fiber lasers
    pumping
    saturation
    bleaching
    solid state lasers
    medicine
    lasing
    proposals
    cascades
    sapphire
    energy transfer
    diodes
    pumps
    slopes
    scaling
    life (durability)

    Keywords

    • EWI-18207
    • IOMS-APD: Active Photonic Devices
    • IR-72467

    Cite this

    Jackson, S.D.; King, T.A.; Pollnau, Markus / Order-of-magnitude power enhancement of an Er3+ 2.7-µm ZBLAN laser utilizing lifetime quenching by energy transfer to Pr3+.

    1999. Postdeadline paper B04_1.

    Research output: Scientific - peer-reviewPaper

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    abstract = "In recent years, there have been enormous research efforts to improve the performance of lasers emitting around 3 µm mainly because of their potential applications in medicine. The erbium-doped ZBLAN fiber is a promising candidate for the construction of a compact and efficient all-solid-state laser emitting on the transition at 2.7 µm. However, a high excitation density with the consequences of pump excited-state absorption (ESA) can lead to output-power saturation in the fiber laser. This saturation was overcome in a cascade lasing regime and 150 mW of output power was achieved under Ti:sapphire pumping at 791 nm. Here, we investigate experimentally a theoretical proposal to scale the output power of the Er3+ 2.7-µm fiber laser to the 1-W region: Ground-state bleaching, large excitation of the Er3+ 4I11/2 and 4I13/2 laser levels, and consequent ESA losses are avoided by an active reduction of the excitation density due to a Förster-Dexter-type energy transfer from the Er3+ 4I13/2 lower laser level to the 3F3 level of a Pr3+ codopant and subsequent fast multiphonon relaxation of the Pr3+ ion. With concentrations of 35000 ppm mol. Er3+ and 3000 ppm mol. Pr3+, the Er3+ 4I13/2 lifetime in ZBLAN is quenched from 8.7 ms to less than 300 µs. Utilizing this approach, we demonstrate 1.7 W of output power in a near transverse-fundamental mode and 17% slope efficiency at 2.71 µm from an erbium ZBLAN fiber pumped at 790 nm by 22 W from a diode source. This result represents more than an order-of-magnitude improvement in output power over previous work. The double-clad fiber consisted of a circular core of 15 µm diameter and a rectangular inner cladding of 100×200 µm2. Since also ESA from the 4I11/2 upper laser level is avoided due to the threshold condition for the laser levels, further power scaling seems possible by pumping at 980 nm directly into 4I11/2.",
    keywords = "EWI-18207, IOMS-APD: Active Photonic Devices, IR-72467",
    author = "S.D. Jackson and T.A. King and Markus Pollnau",
    note = "Postdeadline paper B04_1",
    year = "1999",
    month = "8",
    pages = "Postdeadline paper B04_1",

    }

    Order-of-magnitude power enhancement of an Er3+ 2.7-µm ZBLAN laser utilizing lifetime quenching by energy transfer to Pr3+. / Jackson, S.D.; King, T.A.; Pollnau, Markus.

    1999. Postdeadline paper B04_1.

    Research output: Scientific - peer-reviewPaper

    TY - CONF

    T1 - Order-of-magnitude power enhancement of an Er3+ 2.7-µm ZBLAN laser utilizing lifetime quenching by energy transfer to Pr3+

    AU - Jackson,S.D.

    AU - King,T.A.

    AU - Pollnau,Markus

    N1 - Postdeadline paper B04_1

    PY - 1999/8

    Y1 - 1999/8

    N2 - In recent years, there have been enormous research efforts to improve the performance of lasers emitting around 3 µm mainly because of their potential applications in medicine. The erbium-doped ZBLAN fiber is a promising candidate for the construction of a compact and efficient all-solid-state laser emitting on the transition at 2.7 µm. However, a high excitation density with the consequences of pump excited-state absorption (ESA) can lead to output-power saturation in the fiber laser. This saturation was overcome in a cascade lasing regime and 150 mW of output power was achieved under Ti:sapphire pumping at 791 nm. Here, we investigate experimentally a theoretical proposal to scale the output power of the Er3+ 2.7-µm fiber laser to the 1-W region: Ground-state bleaching, large excitation of the Er3+ 4I11/2 and 4I13/2 laser levels, and consequent ESA losses are avoided by an active reduction of the excitation density due to a Förster-Dexter-type energy transfer from the Er3+ 4I13/2 lower laser level to the 3F3 level of a Pr3+ codopant and subsequent fast multiphonon relaxation of the Pr3+ ion. With concentrations of 35000 ppm mol. Er3+ and 3000 ppm mol. Pr3+, the Er3+ 4I13/2 lifetime in ZBLAN is quenched from 8.7 ms to less than 300 µs. Utilizing this approach, we demonstrate 1.7 W of output power in a near transverse-fundamental mode and 17% slope efficiency at 2.71 µm from an erbium ZBLAN fiber pumped at 790 nm by 22 W from a diode source. This result represents more than an order-of-magnitude improvement in output power over previous work. The double-clad fiber consisted of a circular core of 15 µm diameter and a rectangular inner cladding of 100×200 µm2. Since also ESA from the 4I11/2 upper laser level is avoided due to the threshold condition for the laser levels, further power scaling seems possible by pumping at 980 nm directly into 4I11/2.

    AB - In recent years, there have been enormous research efforts to improve the performance of lasers emitting around 3 µm mainly because of their potential applications in medicine. The erbium-doped ZBLAN fiber is a promising candidate for the construction of a compact and efficient all-solid-state laser emitting on the transition at 2.7 µm. However, a high excitation density with the consequences of pump excited-state absorption (ESA) can lead to output-power saturation in the fiber laser. This saturation was overcome in a cascade lasing regime and 150 mW of output power was achieved under Ti:sapphire pumping at 791 nm. Here, we investigate experimentally a theoretical proposal to scale the output power of the Er3+ 2.7-µm fiber laser to the 1-W region: Ground-state bleaching, large excitation of the Er3+ 4I11/2 and 4I13/2 laser levels, and consequent ESA losses are avoided by an active reduction of the excitation density due to a Förster-Dexter-type energy transfer from the Er3+ 4I13/2 lower laser level to the 3F3 level of a Pr3+ codopant and subsequent fast multiphonon relaxation of the Pr3+ ion. With concentrations of 35000 ppm mol. Er3+ and 3000 ppm mol. Pr3+, the Er3+ 4I13/2 lifetime in ZBLAN is quenched from 8.7 ms to less than 300 µs. Utilizing this approach, we demonstrate 1.7 W of output power in a near transverse-fundamental mode and 17% slope efficiency at 2.71 µm from an erbium ZBLAN fiber pumped at 790 nm by 22 W from a diode source. This result represents more than an order-of-magnitude improvement in output power over previous work. The double-clad fiber consisted of a circular core of 15 µm diameter and a rectangular inner cladding of 100×200 µm2. Since also ESA from the 4I11/2 upper laser level is avoided due to the threshold condition for the laser levels, further power scaling seems possible by pumping at 980 nm directly into 4I11/2.

    KW - EWI-18207

    KW - IOMS-APD: Active Photonic Devices

    KW - IR-72467

    M3 - Paper

    SP - Postdeadline paper B04_1

    ER -