Osteogenic induction was regarded as an indispensable step for adipose‐derived stromal cells (ADSCs) to have osteogenic ability. Non‐induced ADSCs can also produce bone in vivo and heal skeletal defects. The present study aimed to compare the bone‐forming ability of osteogenically induced ADSCs and non‐induced ADSCs in vivo. Tissue‐engineered constructs were prepared from osteogenically induced or non‐induced ADSCs and porous hydroxyapatite/beta‐tricalcium phosphate scaffolds. A scaffold without cells and an empty defect group were used as control. All were implanted in rat critical calvarial defects. After implantation for 6 and 12 weeks, bone formation was analyzed using histomorphometry and microcomputed tomography; there were no significant differences in the formation of new bone between osteogenically induced ADSCs and non‐induced ADSCs (P>0.05). In conclusion, osteogenic induction of ADSCs is not an indispensable step for bone formation in vivo. Non‐induced ADSCs can also be used as seeding cells to construct bone tissue.