Oxygen saturation imaging using LED-based photoacoustic system

Rianne Bulsink, Mithun Kuniyil Ajith Singh, Marvin Xavierselvan, Srivalleesha Mallidi, Wiendelt Steenbergen, Kalloor Joseph Francis*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

30 Citations (Scopus)
135 Downloads (Pure)


Oxygen saturation imaging has potential in several preclinical and clinical applications. Dual-wavelength LED array-based photoacoustic oxygen saturation imaging can be an affordable solution in this case. For the translation of this technology, there is a need to improve its accuracy and validate it against ground truth methods. We propose a fluence compensated oxygen saturation imaging method, utilizing structural information from the ultrasound image, and prior knowledge of the optical properties of the tissue with a Monte-Carlo based light propagation model for the dual-wavelength LED array configuration. We then validate the proposed method with oximeter measurements in tissue-mimicking phantoms. Further, we demonstrate in vivo imaging on small animal and a human subject. We conclude that the proposed oxygen saturation imaging can be used to image tissue at a depth of 6–8 mm in both preclinical and clinical applications.

Original languageEnglish
Article number283
Pages (from-to)1-15
Number of pages15
JournalSensors (Switzerland)
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2021


  • Fluence compensation
  • Hypoxia
  • In vivo
  • LED
  • Oxygen saturation imaging
  • Photoacoustics
  • Ultrasound


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