Over the past century, robust methods were developed that enable the isolation, culture, and dynamic observation of mammalian neuronal networks in vitro. But even if neuronal culture cannot yet fully recapitulate the normal brain, the knowledge that has been acquired from these surrogate in vitro models is invaluable. Indeed, neuronal culture has continued to propel basic neuroscience research, proving that in vitro systems have legitimacy when it comes to studying either the healthy or diseased human brain. Furthermore, scientific advancement typically parallels technical refinements in the field. A pertinent example is that a collective drive in the field of neuroscience to better understand the development, organization, and emergent properties of neuronal networks is being facilitated by progressive advances in micro-electrode array (MEA) technology. In this chapter, we briefly review the emergence of neuronal cell culture as a technique, the current trends in human stem cell-based modeling, and the technologies used to monitor neuronal communication. We conclude by highlighting future prospects that are evolving specifically out of the combination of human neuronal models and MEA technology.