|Title of host publication||International Encyclopedia of Public Health|
|Editors||Harald Kristian Heggenhougen|
|Publication status||Published - 2008|
Issues of empowerment have recently gained much attention in many countries. In this article, the history, application, and implications of empowerment are examined as it relates to health and health care. Special attention is focused on the different models of patient empowerment presented in the literature. The discussion of patient empowerment is facilitated by a conceptual model focusing on the antecedents, barriers, and outcomes relating to both patients and providers. This model is centered on four central processes of patient empowerment: information sharing, doctor-patient communication, shared decision making, and patient self-care. We conclude with a discussion of recent health-care system/financing reforms aimed at facilitating patient empowerment.