Patient preferences for next generation neural protheses to restore bladder function

P.M.H. Sanders, Maarten Joost IJzerman, M.J. Roach, K.J. Gustafson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

20 Citations (Scopus)


Study design: A survey administered to 66 individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) implementing a choice-based conjoint (CBC) analysis. Six attributes with three levels each were defined and used to generate choice sets with treatment scenarios. Patients were asked to choose the scenario that they preferred most. Objectives: To determine the utility weights for treatment characteristics as well as the overall preference for the three types of neural prostheses (NP), that is Brindley, rhizotomy-free Brindley, and pudendal nerve stimulation. Earlier studies have revealed the importance of restoration of bladder function, but no studies have been performed to determine the importance of NP features. Setting: Two academic affiliated medical systems’ SCI outpatient and inpatient rehabilitation programs, Cleveland, OH. Methods: CBC analysis followed by multinomial logit modeling. Individual part-worth utilities were estimated using hierarchical Bayes. Results: Side effects had the greatest significant impact on subject choices, followed by the effectiveness on continence and voiding. NPs with rhizotomy-free sacral root stimulation were preferred (45% first choice) over pudendal afferent nerve stimulation (39% second choice) and sacral root stimulation with rhizotomy (53% third choice). Almost 20% did not want to have an NP at all times. Conclusion: CBC has shown to be a valuable tool to support design choices. The data showed that persons would prefer a bladder NP with minimally invasive electrodes, which would give them complete bladder function, with no side effects and that can be operated by pushing a button and they do not have to recharge themselves
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)113-119
JournalSpinal cord
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2011


  • METIS-275135
  • IR-77001


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