Pectin Methacrylate (PEMA) and Gelatin-Based Hydrogels for Cell Delivery: Converting Waste Materials into Biomaterials

Mehdi Mehrali, Ashish Thakur, Firoz Babu Kadumudi, Malgorzata Karolina Pierchala, Julio Alvin Vacacela Cordova, Mohammad-Ali Shahbazi, Mohammad Mehrali, Cristian Pablo Pennisi, Gorka Orive, Akhilesh K. Gaharwar, Alireza Dolatshahi-Pirouz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

The emergence of nontoxic, eco-friendly, and biocompatible polymers derived from natural sources has added a new and exciting dimension to the development of low-cost and scalable biomaterials for tissue engineering applications. Here, we have developed a mechanically strong and durable hydrogel composed of an eco-friendly biopolymer that exists within the cell walls of fruits and plants. Its trade name is pectin, and it bears many similarities with natural polysaccharides in the native extracellular matrix. Specifically, we have employed a new pathway to transform pectin into a ultraviolet (UV)-cross-linkable pectin methacrylate (PEMA) polymer. To endow this hydrogel matrix with cell differentiation and cell spreading properties, we have also incorporated thiolated gelatin into the system. Notably, we were able to fine-tune the compressive modulus of this hydrogel in the range ∼0.5 to ∼24 kPa: advantageously, our results demonstrated that the hydrogels can support growth and viability for a wide range of three-dimensionally (3D) encapsulated cells that include muscle progenitor (C2C12), neural progenitor (PC12), and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Our results also indicate that PEMA-gelatin-encapsulated hMSCs can facilitate the formation of bonelike apatite after 5 weeks in culture. Finally, we have demonstrated that PEMA-gelatin can yield micropatterned cell-laden 3D constructs through UV light-assisted lithography. The simplicity, scalability, processability, tunability, bioactivity, and low-cost features of this new hydrogel system highlight its potential as a stem cell carrier that is capable of bridging the gap between clinic and laboratory.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)12283-12297
JournalACS applied materials & interfaces
Volume11
Issue number13
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 3 Apr 2019

Keywords

  • Tissue engineering
  • Polysaccharide
  • Hydrogel
  • Pectin
  • Gelatin
  • Human mesenchymal stem cells
  • Muscle
  • Neural
  • Bone

Cite this

Mehrali, M., Thakur, A., Kadumudi, F. B., Pierchala, M. K., Cordova, J. A. V., Shahbazi, M-A., ... Dolatshahi-Pirouz, A. (2019). Pectin Methacrylate (PEMA) and Gelatin-Based Hydrogels for Cell Delivery: Converting Waste Materials into Biomaterials. ACS applied materials & interfaces, 11(13), 12283-12297. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.9b00154
Mehrali, Mehdi ; Thakur, Ashish ; Kadumudi, Firoz Babu ; Pierchala, Malgorzata Karolina ; Cordova, Julio Alvin Vacacela ; Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali ; Mehrali, Mohammad ; Pennisi, Cristian Pablo ; Orive, Gorka ; Gaharwar, Akhilesh K. ; Dolatshahi-Pirouz, Alireza. / Pectin Methacrylate (PEMA) and Gelatin-Based Hydrogels for Cell Delivery : Converting Waste Materials into Biomaterials. In: ACS applied materials & interfaces. 2019 ; Vol. 11, No. 13. pp. 12283-12297.
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abstract = "The emergence of nontoxic, eco-friendly, and biocompatible polymers derived from natural sources has added a new and exciting dimension to the development of low-cost and scalable biomaterials for tissue engineering applications. Here, we have developed a mechanically strong and durable hydrogel composed of an eco-friendly biopolymer that exists within the cell walls of fruits and plants. Its trade name is pectin, and it bears many similarities with natural polysaccharides in the native extracellular matrix. Specifically, we have employed a new pathway to transform pectin into a ultraviolet (UV)-cross-linkable pectin methacrylate (PEMA) polymer. To endow this hydrogel matrix with cell differentiation and cell spreading properties, we have also incorporated thiolated gelatin into the system. Notably, we were able to fine-tune the compressive modulus of this hydrogel in the range ∼0.5 to ∼24 kPa: advantageously, our results demonstrated that the hydrogels can support growth and viability for a wide range of three-dimensionally (3D) encapsulated cells that include muscle progenitor (C2C12), neural progenitor (PC12), and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Our results also indicate that PEMA-gelatin-encapsulated hMSCs can facilitate the formation of bonelike apatite after 5 weeks in culture. Finally, we have demonstrated that PEMA-gelatin can yield micropatterned cell-laden 3D constructs through UV light-assisted lithography. The simplicity, scalability, processability, tunability, bioactivity, and low-cost features of this new hydrogel system highlight its potential as a stem cell carrier that is capable of bridging the gap between clinic and laboratory.",
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author = "Mehdi Mehrali and Ashish Thakur and Kadumudi, {Firoz Babu} and Pierchala, {Malgorzata Karolina} and Cordova, {Julio Alvin Vacacela} and Mohammad-Ali Shahbazi and Mohammad Mehrali and Pennisi, {Cristian Pablo} and Gorka Orive and Gaharwar, {Akhilesh K.} and Alireza Dolatshahi-Pirouz",
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Mehrali, M, Thakur, A, Kadumudi, FB, Pierchala, MK, Cordova, JAV, Shahbazi, M-A, Mehrali, M, Pennisi, CP, Orive, G, Gaharwar, AK & Dolatshahi-Pirouz, A 2019, 'Pectin Methacrylate (PEMA) and Gelatin-Based Hydrogels for Cell Delivery: Converting Waste Materials into Biomaterials' ACS applied materials & interfaces, vol. 11, no. 13, pp. 12283-12297. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.9b00154

Pectin Methacrylate (PEMA) and Gelatin-Based Hydrogels for Cell Delivery : Converting Waste Materials into Biomaterials. / Mehrali, Mehdi; Thakur, Ashish; Kadumudi, Firoz Babu; Pierchala, Malgorzata Karolina; Cordova, Julio Alvin Vacacela; Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali; Mehrali, Mohammad; Pennisi, Cristian Pablo; Orive, Gorka; Gaharwar, Akhilesh K.; Dolatshahi-Pirouz, Alireza.

In: ACS applied materials & interfaces, Vol. 11, No. 13, 03.04.2019, p. 12283-12297.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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T2 - Converting Waste Materials into Biomaterials

AU - Mehrali, Mehdi

AU - Thakur, Ashish

AU - Kadumudi, Firoz Babu

AU - Pierchala, Malgorzata Karolina

AU - Cordova, Julio Alvin Vacacela

AU - Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali

AU - Mehrali, Mohammad

AU - Pennisi, Cristian Pablo

AU - Orive, Gorka

AU - Gaharwar, Akhilesh K.

AU - Dolatshahi-Pirouz, Alireza

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N2 - The emergence of nontoxic, eco-friendly, and biocompatible polymers derived from natural sources has added a new and exciting dimension to the development of low-cost and scalable biomaterials for tissue engineering applications. Here, we have developed a mechanically strong and durable hydrogel composed of an eco-friendly biopolymer that exists within the cell walls of fruits and plants. Its trade name is pectin, and it bears many similarities with natural polysaccharides in the native extracellular matrix. Specifically, we have employed a new pathway to transform pectin into a ultraviolet (UV)-cross-linkable pectin methacrylate (PEMA) polymer. To endow this hydrogel matrix with cell differentiation and cell spreading properties, we have also incorporated thiolated gelatin into the system. Notably, we were able to fine-tune the compressive modulus of this hydrogel in the range ∼0.5 to ∼24 kPa: advantageously, our results demonstrated that the hydrogels can support growth and viability for a wide range of three-dimensionally (3D) encapsulated cells that include muscle progenitor (C2C12), neural progenitor (PC12), and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Our results also indicate that PEMA-gelatin-encapsulated hMSCs can facilitate the formation of bonelike apatite after 5 weeks in culture. Finally, we have demonstrated that PEMA-gelatin can yield micropatterned cell-laden 3D constructs through UV light-assisted lithography. The simplicity, scalability, processability, tunability, bioactivity, and low-cost features of this new hydrogel system highlight its potential as a stem cell carrier that is capable of bridging the gap between clinic and laboratory.

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KW - Tissue engineering

KW - Polysaccharide

KW - Hydrogel

KW - Pectin

KW - Gelatin

KW - Human mesenchymal stem cells

KW - Muscle

KW - Neural

KW - Bone

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DO - 10.1021/acsami.9b00154

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JO - ACS applied materials & interfaces

JF - ACS applied materials & interfaces

SN - 1944-8244

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