Rolling stock maintenance in the Netherlands traditionally is performed on several levels of complexity and therefore on levels of non-availability and cost. The challenge in optimizing performance and cost of rolling stock maintenance is to integrate the policy on maintenance concepts, maintenance locations and maintenance intervals (what, when & where). NedTrain as a subsidiary of the Netherlands Railways is developing and implementing this improved concept of maintenance. On one hand maintenance concepts are being improved based on the philosophy of Risk Based Maintenance, with customer demands on risks regarding safety, reliability, availability and cost as a basis for maintenance renewal. On the other hand - during analysis of current maintenance concepts and risk based improvements – modularization of maintenance tasks is taken into account leading to possibilities to perform these tasks on a lower complexity level, during natural non-availability moments of train sets (off-peak hours in daytime or at night) in local depots instead of larger workshops. With this maintenance policy “Performance Centered Maintenance”, performance improvements and cost reduction are being achieved. New strategies arise for investments in depots, train equipment (e.g. Real Time Monitoring) and training of mechanics.In this document a general overview and first results will be given of the approach.