Performance measurement system for circular supply chain management

Dennis Vegter*, Jos van Hillegersberg, Matthias Olthaar

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)
22 Downloads (Pure)


Circular supply chain management is characterized by multiple interdependencies between various performance objectives for circularity, economic, environmental and social performance. A performance measurement system which takes these interdependencies into account is currently not available, however, is needed to identify effective actions, involve stakeholders and prevent unintended consequences of actions. The objective of this paper is to develop this performance measurement system. Using a methodology of multiple case studies, we identify the interdependencies between the various performance objectives and combine these in a causal loop diagram and a system dynamics model. We then evaluate the usability of these models in two companies which are in transition to circular supply chain management. The companies confirm the relevance of performance objectives, their interdependencies and the validity of the outputs. This results in the following contributions: Service lifetime - the time period of use, recovery and reuse until incineration - is as relevant to circularity as the much-mentioned product lifetime. The maturity of circularity follows four phases: virgin materials only, combination, recovered materials only, deterioration. Shortening the supply chain leads to a rebound effect and increases the environmental impact. The circular premium can relate to shareholders as well as to customers.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)171-183
Number of pages13
JournalSustainable Production and Consumption
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2023


  • Circular economy
  • Circular supply chain
  • Performance measurement
  • Performance measurement system
  • Sustainability
  • System dynamics
  • UT-Hybrid-D


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