### Abstract

Commonly used adaptive algorithms which determine the coefficients of a finite impulse response feed-forward filter in an active noise control application, as the filtered reference least mean squares algorithm, are not performing well when the sound source is non-stationary. A multiple input and multiple output Kalman algorithm potentially has a much better tracking performance, but has a few disadvantages, such as a high calculation complexity and the potential build-up of round-off errors. To overcome these problems a multi-channel Kalman algorithm is presented in fast-array form. The performance of this algorithm was tested in simulations and gives promising results for non-stationary sources, as long as the velocity of the sound source is relatively low. When the sound source has a higher velocity, the Doppler effect plays a significant role on the sound waves, giving a reduction in performance of the algorithm. Also the performance of the Kalman algorithm was validated in a real-time experiment. When the state space equations are rewritten, so the estimated impulse response of the secondary path is equal to a finite impulse response filter, the algorithm shows a comparable rate of convergence in experiments and simulations.

Original language | Undefined |
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Title of host publication | Proceedings of Inter-Noise 2012 |

Place of Publication | USA |

Publisher | The Institute of Noise Control Engineering of the USA |

Pages | 4809-4819 |

Number of pages | 11 |

ISBN (Print) | not assigned |

Publication status | Published - 19 Aug 2012 |

### Publication series

Name | |
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Publisher | The Institute of Noise Control Engineering of the USA |

### Keywords

- EWI-22470
- Kalman filtering
- Adaptive algorithms
- IR-82153
- Active noise control
- METIS-289770
- Acoustics

## Cite this

van Ophem, S., & Berkhoff, A. P. (2012). Performance of a multi-channel adaptive Kalman algorithm for active noise control of non-stationary sources. In

*Proceedings of Inter-Noise 2012*(pp. 4809-4819). USA: The Institute of Noise Control Engineering of the USA.