Periodic Center Manifolds and Normal Forms for DDEs in the Light of Suns and Stars

Bram Lentjes*, Len Spek, Maikel M. Bosschaert, Yu A. Kuznetsov

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Working paperPreprintAcademic

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Bifurcation theory has been very successful in the study of qualitative changes in nonlinear dynamical systems. An important tool of this theory is the existence of a center manifold near nonhyperbolic equilibria and limit cycles or homoclinic orbits. The existence has already been proven for many kinds of different systems, but not fully for limit cycles in delay differential equations (DDEs). In this paper, we prove the existence of a smooth finite-dimensional periodic center manifold near a nonhyperbolic cycle in DDEs and the existence of a special coordinate system on this manifold. This allows us to describe the local dynamics on the center manifold in terms of the standard normal forms. These results are based on the rigorous functional analytic perturbation framework for dual semigroups, also called sun-star calculus.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages59
Publication statusPublished - 6 Jul 2022


  • math.DS
  • math.FA
  • 34C20, 34C25, 34K19, 37L10


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