A photoacoustic double-ring sensor, featuring a narrow angular aperture, is developed for laser-induced photoacoustic imaging of blood vessels. An integrated optical fiber enables reflection-mode detection of ultrasonic waves. By using the cross-correlation between the signals detected by the two rings, the angular aperture of the sensor is reduced by a factor of 1.9, from 1.5 to 0.8 deg. Consequently, photoacoustic images could be obtained in a manner analogous to the ultrasound B-scan mode. Next, the cross section of artificial blood vessels is visualized by reconstruction of the absorbed energy distribution. Finally, in vivo imaging and the subsequent reconstruction of the absorbed energy distribution is demonstrated for superficial blood vessels in the human wrist.
Kolkman, R. G. M., Hondebrink, E., Steenbergen, W., van Leeuwen, T., & de Mul, F. F. M. (2004). Photoacoustic imaging of blood vessels with a double-ring sensor featuring a narrow angular aperture. Journal of biomedical optics, 9(6), 1327-1335. https://doi.org/10.1117/1.1805556