Planning the unknown: the simultaneity of predictive and non-predictive entrepreneurial strategies

Jeroen Kraaijenbrink, Tiago Ratinho, Arend J. Groen

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    Two distinct approaches have emerged to categorize entrepreneurial strategies. While some argue that planning is beneficial for entrepreneurs, a growing body of literature argues that non-predictive strategies can also lead to successful outcomes. The effectuation framework gained attention and it is perhaps the most sophisticated theoretical framework to understand non-predictive strategies. In this paper, we investigate two of the effectuation principles and their relationship to firm performance. Based on an analysis of the business plans of 102 small firms, we find that both principles are comprised of two independent, orthogonal dimensions and that these dimensions affect firm performance differently. The implications are that future theorizing and research on entrepreneurship needs to go beyond the causation-effectuation dichotomy and that it is more fruitful to scrutinize the space of possible entrepreneurial strategies comprised by the various independent dimensions that make up the effectuation construct.
    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publicationFrontiers of entrepreneurship research
    PublisherBabson College
    Publication statusPublished - 6 Jun 2012
    EventBabson College Entrepreneurship Research Conference, BCERC 2012 - Neeley School of Business, Texas Christian University, Forth Worth, United States
    Duration: 6 Jun 20129 Jun 2012

    Publication series

    PublisherBabson College


    ConferenceBabson College Entrepreneurship Research Conference, BCERC 2012
    Abbreviated titleBCERC
    Country/TerritoryUnited States
    CityForth Worth


    • IR-80891
    • METIS-287137


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