Planning walkable cities: Generative design approach towards digital twin implementation

Dewi Kumalasari*, M. Koeva, Faridaddin Vahdatikhaki, Dessislava Petrova Antonova, M. Kuffer

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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The idea of a walkable city refers to the extent to which the built environment encourages people to walk by establishing comfortable pedestrian routes, which allows people to connect to numerous services with reasonable effort and time. Walkability is currently regarded as a “good to know about” rather than a “must-have” factor for sustainable development. A combination of walkability with a standard design strategy, such as generative design, may result in a more efficient way of planning a walkable city. Interestingly, the sole indicator taken into account for walkability in the generative design domain is “distance to amenities”, while in reality, other parameters, such as the comfort factor, could also influence walkability. Therefore, in this research, we developed a workflow based on the generative design, which considers the comfort dimension in combination with distance to amenities and street-level greeneries. We also included the human perspective, given that walkability is always personal. This research successfully generated three different scenarios of walkability-optimal urban plans, where the highest walkability is 82.43 (very walkable). Furthermore, the baseline scenario of two different locations also aligns with people’s perspectives when compared. In addition, we found that the inclusion of a temporal dimension, enhanced 3D-related indicators, and constraints should benefit future research.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1088
JournalRemote sensing
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 16 Feb 2023


  • comfort
  • generative design
  • human behaviour
  • urban planning
  • walkability


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