Polyurethane membrane filters and filters coated with poly(ethyleneimine) were used to investigate the influence of leukocyte adhesion during filtration. Treatment of the filters with an aqueous solution of 1% (w/v) poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) led to the introduction of amine groups at the filter surfaces, as was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The modification procedure did not significantly change the porous structure in the filters, as was demonstrated by SEM and porometry. Using 14C-labeled poly(ethyleneimine) it was shown that nearly a complete coverage (0.1 mg/m2) was achieved that did not desorb from the filter surface during contact with blood plasma. When the filtration was carried out with purified leukocytes in the absence of red cells, platelets, and blood plasma, the number of cells removed by modified filters (>95%) was significantly higher as compared to the removal with unmodified filters (80%). However, no significant differences between the filters were found when the filtration was performed with whole blood. This finding was unexpected, because it was shown before that immobilization of poly(ethyleimine) on solid polyurethane film, surfaces promoted the adhesion of leukocytes from whole blood. Apparently, the adhesive properties of the PEI diminish during filtration. Filter coating of commercial leukocyte filters composed of polyester fibers also had no effect on the removal of leukocytes from whole blood. It was postulated that morphological factors, such as filter shape, roughness, tortuosity, and porosity rather than the physicochemical properties of the filter surface influence cell adhesion to the filter surface, and through that the filtration process.
Bruil, A., Oosterom, H. A., Steneker, I., Beugeling, T., van Aken, W. G., & Feijen, J. (1993). Poly(ethyleneimine) modified filters for the removal of leukocytes from blood. Journal of biomedical materials research, 27(10), 1253-1268. https://doi.org/10.1002/jbm.820271006