Polymer-Based Module for NAD+ Regeneration with Visible Light

B.C. Ma, L. Caire da Silva, S.-M. Jo, F.R. Wurm, M.B. Bannwarth, K.A.I. Zhang*, K. Sundmacher, K. Landfester*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

31 Citations (Scopus)


The regeneration of enzymatic cofactors by cell‐free synthetic modules is a key step towards producing a purely synthetic cell. Herein, we demonstrate the regeneration of the enzyme cofactor NAD+ by photo‐oxidation of NADH under visible‐light irradiation by using metal‐free conjugated polymer nanoparticles. Encapsulation of the light‐active nanoparticles in the lumen of polymeric vesicles produced a fully organic module able to regenerate NAD+ in an enzyme‐free system. The polymer compartment conferred physical and chemical autonomy to the module, allowing the regeneration of NAD+ to occur efficiently, even in harsh chemical environments. Moreover, we show that regeneration of NAD+ by the photocatalyst nanoparticles can oxidize a model substrate, in conjunction with the enzyme glycerol dehydrogenase. To ensure the longevity of the enzyme, we immobilized it within a protective silica matrix; this yielded enzymatic silica nanoparticles with enhanced long‐term performance and compatibility with the NAD+‐regeneration system.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2593-2596
Issue number20
Publication statusPublished - 15 Oct 2019
Externally publishedYes


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