Port-Hamiltonian formulations of the incompressible Euler equations with a free surface

Xiaoyu Cheng, Jaap J.W. van der Vegt, Yan Xu*, Hans Zwart

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


In this paper, we present port-Hamiltonian formulations of the incompressible Euler equations with a free surface governed by surface tension and gravity forces, modelling e.g. capillary and gravity waves and the evolution of droplets in air. Three sets of variables are considered, namely (v,Σ), (η,ϕ ,Σ) and (ω,ϕ ,Σ), with v the velocity, η the solenoidal velocity, ϕ a potential, ω the vorticity, and Σ the free surface, resulting in the incompressible Euler equations in primitive variables and the vorticity equation. First, the Hamiltonian formulation for the incompressible Euler equations in a domain with a free surface combined with a fixed boundary surface with a homogeneous boundary condition will be derived in the proper Sobolev spaces of differential forms. Next, these results will be extended to port-Hamiltonian formulations allowing inhomogeneous boundary conditions and a non-zero energy flow through the boundaries. Our main results are the construction and proof of Dirac structures in suitable Sobolev spaces of differential forms for each variable set, which provides the core of any port-Hamiltonian formulation. Finally, it is proven that the state dependent Dirac structures are related to Poisson brackets that are linear, skew-symmetric and satisfy the Jacobi identity.

Original languageEnglish
Article number105097
Number of pages40
JournalJournal of geometry and physics
Early online date6 Jan 2024
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2024


  • 2024 OA procedure


Dive into the research topics of 'Port-Hamiltonian formulations of the incompressible Euler equations with a free surface'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this