Individuals with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning (MID-BIF; IQ 50-85) are at high risk for developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders (SUD). In individuals without MID-BIF, Seeking Safety (SeSa) is found to be effective in treating PTSD and SUD simultaneously. However, little is known about integrated treatment of PTSD and SUD in individuals with MID-BIF. This review aims to provide an overview of studies about this type of triple psychopathology, as well as PTSD or SUD in individuals with MID-BIF (i.e. dual diagnosis). No studies were found on integrated treatment of PTSD and SUD in individuals with MID-BIF. Thirty-two studies were found on treatment of either PTSD (mostly Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing and cognitive behavior therapy) or SUD (mostly cognitive behavior therapy and mindfulness) in individuals with MID-BIF. Only 9.4 % of these studies mentioned the co-morbidity of PTSD and SUD. Suggestions for adapting treatment to individuals with MID-BIF were provided on communication, structure, non-verbal elements, network, coping skills, therapeutic relationship and use of suitable and reliable instruments to measure treatment progress. More research is needed on the effectivity of EMDR or Imaginary Exposure (IE) combined with SUD treatment (CBT and mindfulness), and on the adaption of SeSa tot individuals with MID-BIF, as well as on this type of triple psychopathology in general.
- Mild intellectual disability
- Substance use disorder