Two wet chemical preparation methods are described for yttria-doped tetragonal zirconia powders. Both methods yield powders with an extremely small crystallite size (8 nm) and a narrow size distribution. The agglomerate and aggregate structure of these powders have been investigated by several techniques. Gel precipitation from an alkoxide solution in water (ldquoalkoxiderdquo synthesis) results in a ceramic powder with irregular-shaped weak and porous agglomerates, which are built up from dense aggregates with a size of 18 nm. Gel precipitates formed from a metal-chloride solution in ammonia (ldquochloriderdquo synthesis) do not contain aggregates. Both types of agglomerate are fractured during isostatic compaction. Hydrolysis and washing under (strong) basic conditions probably decrease the degree of aggregation. The aggregate morphology and structure are key parameters in the microstructure development during sintering of a ceramic. Several characteristics of these powders are compared with those of a commerical one (Toyo Soda TZ3Y).
Groot Zevert, W. F. M., Winnubst, A. J. A., Theunissen, G. S. A. M., & Burggraaf, A. J. (1990). Powder preparation and compaction behaviour of fine-grained Y-TZP. Journal of materials science, 25(8), 3449-3455. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00575369