Precise optical constant determination in the soft X-ray, EUV, and VUV spectral range

Najmeh Abbasirad*, Qais Saadeh, Richard Ciesielski, Alexander Gottwald, Vicky Philippsen, Igor Makhotkin, Andrey Sokolov, Michael Kolbe, Frank Scholze, Victor Soltwisch

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

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Optical constants of materials are essential for predicting and interpreting optical responses, which is crucial when designing new optical components. Although accurate databases of optical constants are available for some regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, for the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV), the extreme ultraviolet (EUV), and soft X-ray spectral ranges, the available optical data suffer inconsistencies, and their determination is particularly challenging. Here, we present a selected example of ruthenium (Ru) for the determination of optical constants from the VUV to the soft X-ray spectral range using reflectivity measurements performed with synchrotron radiation. The subtleties of reflectivity measurements are discussed for a large wavelength range, from 0.7 to 200 nanometers.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationMetrology, Inspection, and Process Control XXXVII
EditorsJohn C. Robinson, Matthew J. Sendelbach
ISBN (Electronic)9781510660991
Publication statusPublished - 27 Apr 2023
EventMetrology, Inspection, and Process Control XXXVII 2023 - San Jose, United States
Duration: 27 Feb 20232 Mar 2023
Conference number: 37

Publication series

NameProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
ISSN (Print)0277-786X
ISSN (Electronic)1996-756X


ConferenceMetrology, Inspection, and Process Control XXXVII 2023
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CitySan Jose


  • extreme ultraviolet
  • optical constant
  • soft X-ray
  • synchrotron radiation
  • vacuum ultraviolet
  • X-ray reflectometry
  • 2023 OA procedure


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