Predicting Landslides Susceptible Zones in the Lesser Himalayas by Ensemble of Per Pixel and Object-Based Models

Ujjwal Sur, Prafull Singh, Sansar Raj Meena*, Trilok Nath Singh

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)
50 Downloads (Pure)


Landslide susceptibility is a contemporary method for delineation of landslide hazard zones and holistically mitigating the future landslides risks for planning and decision-making. The significance of this study is that it would be the first instance when the ‘geon’ model will be attempted to delineate landslide susceptibility map (LSM) for the complex lesser Himalayan topography as a contemporary LSM technique. This study adopted the per-pixel-based ensemble approaches through modified frequency ratio (MFR) and fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (FAHP) and compared it with the ‘geons’ (object-based) aggregation method to produce an LSM for the lesser Himalayan Kalsi-Chakrata road corridor. For the landslide susceptibility models, 14 landslide conditioning factors were carefully chosen; namely, slope, slope aspect, elevation, lithology, rainfall, seismicity, normalized differential vegetation index, stream power index, land use/land cover, soil, topographical wetness index, and proximity to drainage, road, and fault. The inventory data for the past landslides were derived from preceding satellite images, intensive field surveys, and validation surveys. These inventory data were divided into training and test datasets following the commonly accepted 70:30 ratio. The GIS-based statistical techniques were adopted to establish the correlation between landslide training sites and conditioning factors. To determine the accuracy of the model output, the LSMs accuracy was validated through statistical methods of receiver operating characteristics (ROC) and relative landslide density index (R-index). The accuracy results indicate that the object-based geon methods produced higher accuracy (geon FAHP: 0.934; geon MFR: 0.910) over the per-pixel approaches (FAHP: 0.887; MFR: 0.841). The results noticeably showed that the geon method constructs significant regional units for future mitigation strategies and development. The present study may significantly benefit the decision-makers and regional planners in selecting the appropriate risk mitigation procedures at a local scale to counter the potential damages and losses from landslides in the area
Original languageEnglish
Article number1953
JournalRemote sensing
Issue number8
Early online date18 Apr 2022
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2022
Externally publishedYes


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