Prediction of ground reaction forces and moments during various activities of daily living

René Fluit, M.S. Andersen, S. Kolk, Nicolaas Jacobus Joseph Verdonschot, Hubertus F.J.M. Koopman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

125 Citations (Scopus)
23 Downloads (Pure)


Inverse dynamics based simulations on musculoskeletal models is a commonly used method for the analysis of human movement. Due to inaccuracies in the kinematic and force plate data, and a mismatch between the model and the subject, the equations of motion are violated when solving the inverse dynamics problem. As a result, dynamic inconsistency will exist and lead to residual forces and moments. In this study, we present and evaluate a computational method to perform inverse dynamics-based simulations without force plates, which both improves the dynamic consistency as well as removes the model׳s dependency on measured external forces. Using the equations of motion and a scaled musculoskeletal model, the ground reaction forces and moments (GRF&Ms) are derived from three-dimensional full-body motion. The method entails a dynamic contact model and optimization techniques to solve the indeterminacy problem during a double contact phase and, in contrast to previously proposed techniques, does not require training or empirical data. The method was applied to nine healthy subjects performing several Activities of Daily Living (ADLs) and evaluated with simultaneously measured force plate data. Except for the transverse ground reaction moment, no significant differences (P>0.05) were found between the mean predicted and measured GRF&Ms for almost all ADLs. The mean residual forces and moments, however, were significantly reduced (P>0.05) in almost all ADLs using our method compared to conventional inverse dynamic simulations. Hence, the proposed method may be used instead of raw force plate data in human movement analysis using inverse dynamics
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2321-2329
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of biomechanics
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 2014


  • METIS-308073
  • IR-96715


Dive into the research topics of 'Prediction of ground reaction forces and moments during various activities of daily living'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this