Printing arrays of responsive spots for multiplexed sensing with electrochemical readout requires new molecules and precise, high-throughput deposition of active compounds on microelectrodes with spatial control. We have designed and developed new redox-responsive polymers, featuring a poly(ferrocenylsilane) (PFS) backbone and side groups with disulfide units, which allow an efficient and stable bonding to Au substrates, using sulfur-gold coupling chemistry in a "grafting-to" approach. The polymer molecules can be employed for area selective molecular sensing following their deposition by high-precision inkjet printing. The new PFS derivatives, which serve as "molecular inks", were characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and FTIR spectroscopies and by gel permeation chromatography. The viscosity and surface tension of the inks were assessed by rheology and pendant drop contact angle measurements, respectively. Commercial microelectrode arrays were modified with the new PFS ink by using inkjet printing in the "drop-on-demand" mode. FTIR spectroscopy, AFM, and EDX-SEM confirmed a successful, spatially localized PFS modification of the individual electrodes within the sensing cells of the microelectrode arrays. The potential application of these devices to act as an electrochemical sensor array was demonstrated with a model analyte, ascorbic acid, by using cyclic voltammetry and amperometric measurements.
- inkjet printing
- electrochemical sensors
- poly(ferrocenylsilane) (PFS)
- microelectrode array (MEA) chip
- drop-on-demand (DoD)