In this chapter, existing knowledge about and experiences with product-integrated photovoltaics (PIPVs) for various product categories is presented: consumer products, lighting products, business-to-business products, recreational products, vehicles and transportation, and arts. The term PIPV indicates that PV technology is integrated in a product by positioning PV cells on the surfaces of a product. An overview is given of existing solar-powered products, and the design of PIPV will be presented from the context of design processes. Our findings show that PIPV can be applied well in different product categories and various markets. Based on a review of the existing literature, the following topics are addressed in more detail: technical aspects, system design, energy balance, costs, environmental aspects, human factors, and design and manufacturing. From our review, it is found that many relevant issues regarding PIPV have not been explored thoroughly so far; among others energy-efficient management of PIPV-battery systems, environmental aspects of PV technology in products, manufacturing of PIPVs, and user experiences with PIPV in different product categories. In this chapter, it is shown that PIPV can offer energy to products with a wide range of power demand. Therefore, it is envisioned in the future that PIPV might become common, for instance, in public lighting products, sensors, boats, cars, and in urban furniture in public spaces.
|Title of host publication||Comprehensive Renewable Energy|
|Number of pages||24|
|Publication status||Published - 1 Jan 2012|
- Energy balance
- Human factors
- Product-integrated PV