Production of non-constructive concrete blocks using contaminated soil

A.C.J. de Korte, H.J.H. Brouwers

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)
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In this research, a heavily contaminated humus-rich peat soil and a lightly contaminated humus-poor sand soil, extracted from a field location in the Netherlands, are immobilized. These two types of soil are very common in the Netherlands. The purpose is to develop financial feasible, good quality immobilisates, which can be produced on large scale. To this end, two binder combinations were examined, namely slag cement with quicklime and slag cement with hemi-hydrate. The mixes with hemi-hydrate proved to be better for the immobilization of humus rich soils, having a good early strength development. The heavily contaminated soil with 19% humus (of dm) could not be immobilized using 398 kg slag cement and 33 kg quicklime per m3 concrete mix (binder = 38.4% dm soil). It is possible to immobilize this soil using 480 kg binder (432 kg slag cement, 48 kg quicklime) per m3 of mix (58.2% dm). An alternative to the addition of extra binder (slag cement with quicklime) is mixing the soil with sand containing particles in the range of 0–2 mm. This not only improved the compressive strength of the immobilisates, but also reduced the capillary absorption. All the mixes with the lightly contaminated soil were cost-effective and suitable for production of immobilisates on a large scale. These mixes had good workability, a good compressive strength and a low capillary absorption. The leaching of all mixes was found to be much lower than allowed by the regulations. Given these results, the final mixes in the main experiment fulfilled all the financial and technical objectives.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3564-3578
Number of pages15
JournalConstruction and building materials
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 2009


  • Immobilization
  • Soil
  • Concrete
  • Cement
  • Quicklime


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