Background and Purpose. In patients with locally advanced rectal cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation followed by rectal resection, postoperative morbidity is a significant clinical problem. Pathologic complete tumour response seems to give the best prognosis in the long term. Little is known about the factors that are associated with postoperative complications and pathologic complete response. The aim of this retrospective study was to identify and describe these factors. Methods Ninety-nine consecutive patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who underwent neoadjuvant chemoradiation (50 Gy and capecitabine) followed by surgery at our institute between January 2007 andMay 2012 were identified. Postoperative complications were graded according to the Clavien-Dindo classification. Pathologic tumour response was categorized as complete response or no/partial response. Results Postoperative complications occurred in 68 patients (69 %) and grade 3–5 complications in 25 patients (25 %). The 30-day and 90-day mortality were 1 % (n=1) and 2 % (n=2), respectively. A young age (p=0.021) and a preoperative or postoperative blood transfusion (p=0.015) independently predicted complications. Intraoperative or postoperative blood transfusion (p=0.007) and ypT0-1 stage (p=0.037) were independent predictors for grade 3–5 complications. Complete response rate was 22 % (n=22); 4%(n=4) of patients showed no response. No independent factors predicting complete response were found. Conclusions Neoadjuvant chemoradiation followed by rectal resection is associated with significant postoperative morbidity but minimal postoperative mortality. A complete response rate of 22 % was achieved.