Proteus II: Design and Evaluation of an Integrated Power-Efficient Underwater Sensor Node

Wouter A.P. van Kleunen*, Niels A. Moseley, Paul J.M. Havinga, Nirvana Meratnia

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)
269 Downloads (Pure)


We describe the design and evaluation of an integrated low-cost underwater sensor node designed for reconfigurability, allowing continuous operation on a relatively small rechargeable battery for one month. The node uses a host CPU for the network protocols and processing sensor data and a separate CPU performs signal processing for the ultrasonic acoustic software-defined Modulator/Demodulator (MODEM). A Frequency Shift Keying- (FSK-) based modulation scheme with configurable symbol rates, Hamming error correction, and Time-of-Arrival (ToA) estimation for underwater positioning is implemented. The onboard sensors, an accelerometer and a temperature sensor, can be used to measure basic environmental parameters; additional internal and external sensors are supported through industry-standard interfaces (I2C, SPI, and RS232) and an Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) for analog peripherals. A 433 MHz radio can be used when the node is deployed at the surface. Tests were performed to validate the low-power operation. Moreover the acoustic communication range and performance and ToA capabilities were evaluated. Results show that the node achieves the one-month lifetime, is able to perform communication in highly reflective environments, and performs ToA estimation with an accuracy of about 1-2 meters.

Original languageEnglish
Article number791046
JournalInternational journal of distributed sensor networks
Publication statusPublished - 2015


  • EC Grant Agreement nr.: FP7/611449
  • Underwate
  • Acoustic networks
  • Scheduling
  • Communication


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