We describe the design and evaluation of an integrated low-cost underwater sensor node designed for reconfigurability, allowing continuous operation on a relatively small rechargeable battery for one month. The node uses a host CPU for the network protocols and processing sensor data and a separate CPU performs signal processing for the ultrasonic acoustic software-defined Modulator/Demodulator (MODEM). A Frequency Shift Keying- (FSK-) based modulation scheme with configurable symbol rates, Hamming error correction, and Time-of-Arrival (ToA) estimation for underwater positioning is implemented. The onboard sensors, an accelerometer and a temperature sensor, can be used to measure basic environmental parameters; additional internal and external sensors are supported through industry-standard interfaces (I2C, SPI, and RS232) and an Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) for analog peripherals. A 433 MHz radio can be used when the node is deployed at the surface. Tests were performed to validate the low-power operation. Moreover the acoustic communication range and performance and ToA capabilities were evaluated. Results show that the node achieves the one-month lifetime, is able to perform communication in highly reflective environments, and performs ToA estimation with an accuracy of about 1-2 meters.
|Number of pages||10|
|Journal||International journal of distributed sensor networks|
|Publication status||Published - 25 Aug 2015|
- EC Grant Agreement nr.: FP7/611449
- Underwater Acoustic Networks Scheduling Communication
van Kleunen, W. A. P., Moseley, N. A., Havinga, P. J. M., & Meratnia, N. (2015). Proteus II: Design and Evaluation of an Integrated Power-Efficient Underwater Sensor Node. International journal of distributed sensor networks, 2015, 791046. . https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/791046