Psychometric properties of the engaged living scale (ELS) Spanish version in a large sample of Spanish pilgrims

Jaime Navarrete, Ariadna Colomer-Carbonell, Juan P. Sanabria-Mazo, Juan V. Luciano*, Joaquim Soler, Javier García-Campayo, Marcelo Demarzo, Jesús Montero-Marín, Ernst T. Bohlmeijer, Daniel Campos, Ausiàs Cebolla, Albert Feliu-Soler

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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Engaged Living (values clarity and committed action) is a main process of psychological flexibility as defined by Acceptance and Commitment Therapy. The Engaged Living Scale (ELS) was designed to measure it. The purpose of this study was to translate the ELS to Spanish and to examine the reliability and validity of its scores in a heterogeneous sample of 752 Spanish pilgrims of the Way of Saint James (pre-post analysis: n = 285). Confirmatory factor analyses were computed to study the structural validity of the ELS scores. In addition, network analyses were computed to examine convergent and discriminant validity. The included variables were engaged living, mindfulness facets, satisfaction with life, subjective happiness, affect, depression, anxiety, and perceived stress. Results showed that the Spanish version of the ELS is two-factorial (valued living [VL] and life fulfillment [LF]). The ELS scores showed good reliability. In addition, it was able to detect VL and LF changes after the Way underscoring its sensitivity to change. The network analyses indicated adequate convergent and discriminant validity of the ELS. Changes in satisfaction with life, life fulfillment, happiness, and valued living scores were most strongly associated with changes in perceived stress, affect, mindfulness facets, depression, and anxiety. In short, the Spanish version of the ELS appeared to be a reliable and valid instrument to assess the engaged response style in the current samples.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)266-277
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Contextual Behavioral Science
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2023


  • Engaged living
  • Engaged living scale
  • Factor structure
  • Network analysis
  • Pilgrimage


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