In this chapter, numerical modeling strategies are presented for the pultrusion of thermosetting composite profiles. The focus is particularly on the forming die and postdie region in which the multiphysics takes place. The state-of-the-art thermochemical–thermomechanical models are exposed in which the main challenges, such as the process-induced stresses and shape deformations together with the temperature and curing history, are addressed. In these numerical models, a three-dimensional (3D) thermochemical analysis is sequentially coupled with a 2D quasi-static mechanical analysis of the pultrusion process. The process simulations are carried out not only for unidirectional (UD) composites but also for industrial pultruded parts that contain the combination of UD roving and continuous filament mat (CFM) layers. The predicted quantities, such as residual warpage and spring-in, are compared with the measured ones from the real pultruded products.
|Name||Woodhead publishing series in composites science and engineering|